Adult’s Boredom in Literature

It’s worth informing that’s the literature of today seems to be the literature of defeat and absurdity and boresome. Among the accelerating of nowadays culture and the environmental industry, where the vivid life of the soul and spirituality seems to be moved aside. Which lead us to two main questions:

what to do about boredom, how to overcome it, lessen it, or learn to live with it? what boredom produces, and what it explains? Therefore, in order to adjustive those elements and conflict on nowadays literature we are aiming for: Analyzing and studying the background behind that absurdity and boresome in modern literature. Standing up with a well-developed, and qualified examples of the new era of literature.

Since that art and literature has always gained an important value of developing and educating once self, it seems to be an important and a significant topic for us to maintain its noble message against what seems to be a negative influenced, separated by some of its known ambassadors.

On standing against the boresome and absurdity on modern literature, we have to manifested a new horizons and  approaches on modern literature. We will follow the scientific method on this research, especially the inductive and descriptive method, by looking and gathering the information and the resources that seems to satisfy the topic we will be discussing on this research, before coming up with a conclusion or an analogy.

Mohammed, Aziz, The Critical Case Of “K”, Lebanon, Dara Altanweer, 2017

The topic of The Critical Case Of “K”, the novel is most relevant to nowadays events among all the times before, for its topics that has been discussing about illness and isolation, quarantine and self lock-down, and its effect on once mental health, and on once mental capacity.

Marlowe, Christopher, Doctor Faustus, England, Pearson Longman, 2003

Doctor Faustus is a classical play by the German writer Christopher Marlowe, which described the boresome of all kind of knowledge and science, that leads Faustus to turn into the dark magic, which lead him to his end.

Wolfgang, Johann, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, United State, Princeton University Press, 1995

Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship is an autobiographical sequence of a German poet named as Wilhelm, and his journey towards manifesting his goal, that it was mostly disturbed by his unmotivated soul to devoting him self into the process of making effort through the hard work. 

Wilson, Colin, The Outsiders, Maricopa, Phoenix, 2001

The Outsiders is a philosophical and an analytical study on the phycologist of the most famous writers, painters, philosophers, and poet, and their spiritual cries; including dissociation, boresome, identity crises and so for. Analyzed through a phenological and phycologist way.

Backman, Fredri, A Man Called Ove, NYCM Washington Square Press, 2015

A Man Named Ove is a story tell, narrative by on old, suicidal man who has lost his wife, and the boresome seems to fulfill his life, yet it seems like there were lots of people and events to convince  him not to do so, or it came between him and his fatal death.

Murakami, Haruki Sleep, Ziqua, Masciliana Editions, 2013

Sleep is a short novella by the Japanese writer Haruki Murakami, which describes the case of married woman with little child, who seems to has a life block, added to her mental and physical health condition, that left her awake for almost a week, without resting, or sleeping, which leads her life to be a mechanical, repeated routine of the endless boredom.

Dazai, Osamu, No Longer Human, United State, New Directions Publishing, 2001

No Longer Human, is a Japanese novel, follows the rhythm of a personal minor of its writer Osamu Dazai, by describing on depth such feeling like self-shame, self-distraction, little interest on owning anything, nor aiming for  anything and between all of that, the hero of this novels never feel like as if he was qualified to be a human.

Kafka, Franz, The Metamorphosis, Australia, 2006

The Metamorphosis is a breathtaking, depressing, and symptomatic novel, written by the German writer Franz Kafka, in which his main hero; Gregor, has found himself once as a large insect that seems to disgust everyone around, including his family and his team workers, and that symptomatically reflects how Gregor was living his entire life on absolute absurdity and no meaningful life, within no self-respect, nor to himself nether by others.

Linguistic Definition:

The boredom according to The Oxford English Dictionary, the word boredom dates to the mid-nineteenth century. It is not a very old word linguistically. The American essayist Logan Pearsall Smith (1865–1946) made the original observation that bore and interesting first appeared in print about two years apart. The point is important. These two words reflect a new modern state of mind, a condition of humanity that, as it moved from a shared religious and communal language, shifted in orientation to a strong sense of individualism. While this brought us a strengthening of democracy, a greater emphasis on personal liberties and freedoms, and enhanced protection for those most vulnerable in society, it also brought us a greater emphasis on internal, individual mental states. Smith claims that both words belong to “that curious class of verbs and adjectives which describe not so much the objective qualities and activities of things as the effects they produce on us.”[1]

Idiomatic Definition:

Boredom seems to be one of the topics that philosopher has an approach on, from the ancient philosopher to many modern philosophers such as the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) when he identifies boredom:  “The pleasures have been withdrawn which business itself affords to those who are busily engaged, the mind cannot endure home, solitude, and the walls of a room, and sees with dislike that it has been left to itself. From this comes that boredom, dissatisfaction, the vacillation of a mind that nowhere finds rest, and the sad and languid endurance of one’s leisure. Thence comes mourning and melancholy and the thousand wavering of an unsettled mind, which its aspirations hold in suspense, and then disappointment renders melancholy. Thence comes that feeling which makes men loathe their own leisure and complain that they themselves have nothing to be busy with.

Procedural Definition”

Boredom is kind of a mental attitude that people might reach out to it whenever they lost interest of things around them due to the lack of meaning of their behaves or lack of mindfulness or motivation.  

Theoretical Background:

Art, music, poet and literature writing was always been one of the important things that philosophers and educated men admired the most, for the good it brings with it, and for the messages it passes to the learner.3 [2]

Although the act of inspiration when it comes to the art difference from person to another. The Greek philosopher Plato see that the artist’s strength of creativity is not from his will and skill, and he has no choice, because Plato’s concept of beauty is that it is external and constant.

Although modern physiologist might find this analogy debatable, due to the “synchronicity” which occurs when your thoughts and dreams match up with events in your everyday life, and so lots of artistic forums seems to be a projection of what our ideas and dreams and thoughts are all about.  4

The first novel that was ever written in history was “The Tale of Genji” by the Japanese female novelist Murasaki Shikibum in 1008, Following the life and romances of Hikaru Genji, the Japanese emperor and his live and adventures and so for. 5

So, novels was known since the human were civilized and it continues endlessly till today, for the benefit that writing brings with it, both for the maturity of the writer, and the experiences to the reader. As much as we owe the act of writing novels and the act of literature writing whether if that was poets, plays, to be opened up about different aspects and perspectives, as much as we have to put the scientific approaches, and the psychosocial once as well in consideration when it comes to literature, and what the author is trying to pass for us, through his own projection of the world as they see it.

Data Analysis:

Objective: Boredom is an emotion characterized of lack of pleasure and aims. Existing data support the validity of the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS) as an index of boredom proneness. The factor structure of the instrument has been widely examined and yielding inconsistent and contradictory results. Aims: What is needed is empirical confirmation of the possibility that the BPS captures several facets of boredom attitude. To this end, the current study examined the factor structure of the scale within a nonclinical sample. Method: We administered the BPS to 312 Italian students (39.7% male and 60.3% female), ranging in age from 18 to 43 years (M = 20.96, SD = 3.55), attending several academic programs. In order to determine the dimensional structure underlying the questionnaire, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to estimate internal consistency reliability. 6 [3]

part of (BPS) survey

Sample size did not permit to perform gender-separate exploratory factor analyses and multisampling confirmatory factor analyses in order to verify structural invariance for males and females. It shows that principal axis analysis (with promax rotation) was conducted on the 28-item BPS undertaken by the whole group of participants. The factoring analysis performed without fixing number of factors to extract yielded nine factors explaining 44.63% of the variance. However, an examination of the loading patterns suggested over extraction, with several factors defined by only two variables. The Maximum Likelihood factors method of extraction was employed. Fixing numbers of factors to five, the Goodness-of-fit Test was significant, while fixing numbers of factors to a value greater than five maximum likelihood estimation failed to converge. Based on extraction sums of squared loadings, factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were only four instead, with the fourth factor eigenvalue very close to 1 (1.050). Inspection of the scree plot was not helpful in this case, because of a somewhat meaningless and questionable slope.

Outlines

In conclusion, we had just discussed through the previous studies couples of the modern examples of adult’s boredom in literature, and we as well included the definition of the boredom, in a linguistic and a procedural and idiomatic definition. We had also come across the concept of art, and how it’s formulated by the Greek philosopher Plato, and we came across the term synchronicity by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung. We had also come across the participants responses on the research questions:  

what to do about boredom, how to overcome it, lessen it, or learn to live with it?

what boredom produces, and what does it explain?

And so we come up with the following conclusions and analogies

in order to overcome this tedium. The best course would be to occupy oneself with practical matters, the management of once private affairs, and the duties of a citizen

It’s important to keep a background knowledge of once writer, when we are interacting with the modern literature, for the sake of better understanding of the case and the author as well, and for once mental capacity.

Conclusions

Boredom is a natural human condition that everyone feels it every so often, but what illogical it is, nor a matter of logic is distinguishing between once temporary mental state, and what’s not as Adam Smith once said. It’s easy for humans to be driven into a kind of absurd, nihilist attitude, when the absent of the fluidity of the mind and the spirit is locked down, under the weight of boredom, and one’s limitations.

As much as of how important the art is, on its different media, such as literature, music or painting, as much as it works as an element of reflection and projection once world, and once inner world, through the written poet and such.

So, here come the important of self-analysis and criticism, and the important to be subjective and building your own walls against others projection that might seems to passes us a huge energy of darkness or absurdity, without having any hand on this, nor without being informed about what’s the writer has been through.


Resources

Mohammed, Aziz, The Critical Case Of “K”, Lebanon, Dara Altanweer, 2017

Marlowe, Christopher, Doctor Faustus, England, Pearson Longman, 2003

Wolfgang, Johann, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, United State, Princeton University Press, 1995

Wilson, Colin, The Outsiders, Maricopa, Phoenix, 2001

Backman, Fredri, A Man Called Ove,  NYCM Washington Square Press, 2015

Murakami, Haruki Sleep, Ziqua, Masciliana Editions, 2013

Dazai, Osamu, No Longer Human, United State, New Directions Publishing, 2001

Kafka, Franz, The Metamorphosis, Australia, 2006

Svendsen, Lars, A Philosophy of Boredom, England, Reaktion Books, 2005

 Boredom: A History of Western Philosophical Perspectives

 Wilson, Colin, Beyond the Outsider, NYC, Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc, 1991

 Brown, Erica, Spiritual Boredom, Woodstock, Lights Publishing, 2009

 Jung, Carl, Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1973 

Boredom: A History of Western Philosophical Perspectives 

Plato, The Republic of Plato, B Basic Books, 1991

Jung, Carl, Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, Princeton, Princeton University, 1973 

Shikibu, Murasaki, The Tale of Genji

A factor analytic study of the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS)

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